Please take a moment to follow this link to complete a survey about skateboard sizes.

Alternatively, you can navigate to the survey by copying and pasting the following URL to your browser's address bar:

Thursday, May 27, 2010

Animal-Friendly Skate Shoes

01/18/2011 UPDATE: Incorporated ShakenVegetable's input regarding Axion, éS, and Nike shoes.

10/20/10 UPDATE: Added a new shoe manufacturer. Habitat Skateboards makes a full line of skate shoes, 4 of which are vegan.

10/13/10 UPDATE: Sad news. Action Leather appears to be animal hide:

9/15/10 UPDATE: Some new confirmed synthetics for Adio and Circa. Some new words of praise for IPath shoes.

8/12/10 UPDATE: Could it be that my blog post is causing skate shoe companies to change their ways? I ask because I've noticed an increase in disclosure from these companies about what's in their shoes. So far, Osiris and Vans have changed how they describe their shoes. 

I skate synthetic skate shoes for two reasons: 1. I believe in buying cruelty-free products, and 2. I prefer the way synthetic materials perform in footwear. In my experiences, shoes made of synthetic materials do not smell bad even after wearing them extensively, do not stretch out of shape, wear away at a slower rate, and, most importantly, they grip the board extremely well. With shoes made of synthetic materials, I don't have to work as hard on popping ollies, nollies, casper flips, kickflips, and any other trick that involves contacting the grip with the top or side of the shoe. Less work getting the board up means more energy on flicking the board the correct way. I prefer fully synthetic shoes that are marketed clearly as such, because I like to reward companies that are making an earnest effort to accommodate the minority of consumers who prefer animal-friendly products or alternatives to leather. It is frustrating for vegans, vegetarians, and animal lovers to shop for shoes and even more frustrating when shopping for shoes for a specific purpose like skateboarding. Sometimes, though, my financial situation dictates that I go for fully synthetic uppers and risk the possibility that the shoes were constructed with animal-based glues. I mostly don't like the feel and odor of animal pelt shoes, and the glues don't seem to make any difference one way or the other, so I operate minimally on the principle of buying synthetic uppers. Optimally, though, I want a 100% synthetic shoe.
Many erstwhile lists of vegan skate shoes are by now admittedly outdated. While a list of known synthetic footwear products is helpful, it is difficult to maintain such a list. The manufacturers themselves don't always know which of their shoes are full synthetic and which aren't. Shoe designers may specify certain materials, but corporate entities make the final decisions about materials and designers have little to no visibility of production processes. The designer works in San Francisco, for instance, the corporate headquarters is in Ohio, and the shoes are manufactured in China. You can see how it takes a concerted effort for a corporation to stay aware of what their offerings are.
I will create a partial list of known and suspected full synthetic upper skate shoes, but I mostly want to arm consumers with what to look for when hunting for synthetic skate shoes.

Finding skate shoes made of synthetic materials involves decoding industry lingo. Many companies don't want to admit they're using synthetic materials for their shoes; presumably for fear that customers won't buy them. So, they use synonyms, many of which are names of patented synthetic materials made by the patent-holding company, who may or may not be a shoe manufacturer. When looking at manufacturer websites for information about shoes, some companies use synonyms, while others do not. On the shoes themselves, the descriptions of the materials are often found wanting. Most DC Shoes, for instance, have "Leather Upper" written on the tongue, even when the box says the uppers are man-made. From what I can gather, the following is an unconfirmed list of synonyms for the synthetic materials meant to replace animal hides in shoes:

  • Action Leather Confirmed animal hide 
  • Action Nubuck (sometimes)
  • Super Suede
  • Suede (sometimes)
  • Action Pebble Grain
  • NDQ
Other names for materials:

  • Apex
  • Trojan
  • Sandbuck
  • Barogue Leather
  • Nobel Nubuck
  • Danbuck
Suede is an interesting material. There are no rules about what suede is, just so long as it is a napped material. This means suede could be from animal pelts or from synthetic materials. The best way to check on whether the suede in a shoe is synthetic or not is to read the box in the shoe store: if it says "Upper- man-made materials" or something like that, then it is synthetic suede. 
One trick I use to make canvas shoes skateable is I put heat-moldable inserts in them. I like the Sole products the best: One Sole insole usually lasts me about 2 years, and I only rarely have had to reheat them. My favorite Sole insoles for skating are the Thin Sport model in tight shoes like Vans or shoes where you can't take out the factory insole and the Signature Dean Karnazes model for shoes with removable insoles. I have one of each depending on the shoe I'm wearing at the time.
I also like to use the Sole insoles for vulcanized shoes. I am 36 years old at the time of this writing with 3 terminal injuries in my legs - left knee, right hip, right foot (only the hip from skating). Vulcanized shoes are extremely hard on my aging body, so I use insoles to dampen the impact forces acting on my body. Over the last 23 years I've watched skate shoes swing back and forth between cup sole and vulcanized constructions. For 2010 I've noticed that some of the shoe companies are trying to create shoes with the support and impact dampening of cup soles with the board feel and flexibility of vulcanized soles (Vans Versa is one notable example, DC Shoes also has many shoes that blend the benefits of both constructions in one shoe with their wrapped cup sole construction). I definitely prefer cup sole constructions, but I want board feel, so a heat-moldable insole in a vulcanized shoe gets me what I want.
By "fully synthetic uppers", I mean to say that the fabric materials are synthetic, but I don't mean to say that the glues are synthetic.
So, here I present a partial list of skate shoes made of synthetic materials:

Adidas originals

Adidas has no apparent fully synthetic skate shoe offerings.


Adio's website is unclear about the materials used in the construction of their shoes. The Adio Eugene in black is confirmed synthetic.
Zappos has some additional information:

  • Copley (synthetic nubuck upper)
  • Riviera (synthetic nubuck upper)
  • Rook (textile upper)
  • Torres V2 (synthetic suede upper)


Axion shoes have clean designs and look like they would be pretty comfortable. The website is clear about the materials used in the shoes.
Suspected fully synthetic uppers:

  • Nino (White/Navy/Yellow, Black/Gray/Red) confirmed animal hide - thank you, ShakenVegetable!
  • Mandela (White/Navy/Yellow, White/Black)
  • Liberty (White/Navy/Royal)


C1RCA is very good about providing information about the materials in their shoes. I like C1RCA because they offer many synthetic-based shoes in technical models. C1RCA shows that you don't have to suffer a thin canvas upper vulcanized to an inflexible rubber sole with no arch support to get a skate shoe made of synthetic materials. C1RCA's website is easy to use and it is easy to find the models made with synthetic materials. The Tony Tave models are all "100% Synthetic". I skated the Tave model for about 5 months; once I removed the kook padding on the tongue (a simple stitch cut and restitch job) and swapped out the insoles for my heat moldable insoles, the shoes became perfect after breaking in. Other models use synthetic materials but aren't listed by C1RCA as "100% Synthetic" - I imagine it is the glues that are not synthetic in those models. (Note: the 205 models run small, so you have to go up a half or whole size.)
I applaud C1RCA for making it so easy and for making a highly technical shoe (the Tave) of fully synthetic materials. Thank you, C1RCA! (Now, can you just be a little clearer about the suspected shoes below?)
Good bet:

  • Tave (all colorways)
  • 205 (Black/Gray/Red, White/Brown/Plaid, White/Green)
  • CX 205 (this is an older model that is 100% synthetic)
  • AL50 (Black/White/Gray)
Suspected fully synthetic uppers, possibly organic glues:

  • Lopez 50 (Black/White/Biker, White/Royal)
  • Lopez 50 Mid (Brick Red/Blue/White)
  • Easy Ryder (White/Black)
  • Rogue (White/Dark Green)
  • Hatchet (Black/Green/White)
  • 8 Track (White/Red, Black/White/Blue Plaid
  • 205 Vulc (Gray/Charcoal Green Plaid, White/Royal, Black/Black/White, Army Green/White)
  • 205 (Castle Rock/Black)
  • 205 EVO (White/Black
  • Game High (White)
  • 4 Track (White/Gray)
  • Game (White/Royal)

C1RCA Combat

C1RCA Combat is a sub-division of C1RCA shoes. They have the same technology as C1RCA, and the same level of commitment to 100% synthetic shoes in technical designs. Aside from style aspects, the primary difference, from what I can tell, between C1RCA and C1RCA Combat is that the Combat shoe line has a higher percentage of shoes with vulcanized soles. 

Good bets:
  • Scraper (Black/Green/White, Charcoal/Royal, Red/White)


Converse is a well-known maker of canvas upper shoes. Canvas uppers are a no-brainer: they fit my "fully synthetic uppers" description. The CVO is a new shoe that promises more cushioning than normal Cons. Converses usually run a size large, so if you wear a size 13, you would wear 12 in Converses.
Good bets:
  • CVO
  • Chuck Taylor


Many DC Shoes are constructed of Super Suede, a known synthetic material. For 2010, DC models with "TX" in the name are made of a fairly tough textile that gives really good grip for board flicks that use the shoe upper. Older models with "SN" in the name are full synthetic. Models made of Super Suede are suspected to be fully synthetic. DC Shoes' website is not always clear about the materials used in their shoes. Many of the shoes themselves will be constructed of synthetic materials but still read "Leather Upper" on the tongue.
Good bet:
  • General SN
  • Sector 7 TX
  • Empire TX
  • Chase TX
Suspected fully synthetic:
  • Tonik (Wild Dove, Oxblood/White, Dark Olive, Black)
  • Tonik Skate (Black/White, White)
  • Purist (Black/White/Columbia)
  • Match (models with Super Suede)
  • Tribe (models with Super Suede)


    Dekline shoes are definitely a skater's choice. All their shoes are designed for skateboarding and all are fantastic shoes to skate in. The models all have good arch support and every model has a fully synthetic upper offering. The Belmont has a fairly thin sole, so it was pretty hard on my body. The Paxton is a nice shoe; it is shaped boxy like the kook puffy shoes of yore, but has thinner padding. All the Dekline shoes have an outsole construction that is simply perfect for most types of skateboarding. It seems to take forever to wear through the sole but the shoes still have great flexibility. New for 2010 is that the vulcanized models will have removable insoles, making these shoes damn near perfect because you can put your custom insoles in them. The Belmonts are also improved with a rubber toecap and ollie protection area. The previous model Belmonts had rubber under the canvas, anyway, now the shoes won't look so torn up. Deklines are really great shoes.
    Dekline's website is clear about which shoes are synthetic and which aren't. Basically, the canvas ones are synthetic.
    Be careful with previous season shoes: the Dekline colorways made of canvas do change from season to season, so Red might be canvas now but was suede last season.
    2010 Good bets:
    • Paxton (Black, Red)
    • Belmont (Black/Red, Dark Aqua, White/Black, Black/Black)
    • Blye (Army)
    • Bodega (Black/Red)
    • Bodega Mid (Army)
    • Harper (Gray, Black)
    • Forty 5 (White/Gray)


    I don't know anything about DuFFS, but they have one shoe made of action leather.
    Suspected fully synthetic:
    • 4130 Mid (All colorways made of "Action Leather")


    Draven has many animal-friendly offerings; so many that I don't feel a need to list them. If you like thin canvas shoes with vulcanized soles, check out Draven. The shoes have punk rock styles and many of them have a little rubber ollie patch a la old Vision Street Wear shoes from the 80's. Sweet looking shoes, the lot.

    DVS Shoe Company

    If DVS makes any fully synthetic upper shoes, I can't tell from their website. The Berra 4 was on an old list of vegan skate shoes, but the Berra models there now don't even have a listing of materials.


    Element has funny terms that I haven't figured out yet, like "Apex" and "Trojan". From what I can see, Element isn't even trying to make it easy to find fully synthetic shoes in their lineup. They have two models with canvas uppers that make this list.
    Good bets:
    • Carnegie (Plum, Orange, Blue, Goldenrod)
    • Halifax (White/Antique)


    Thanks to some excellent research from ShakenVegetable, we now know that éS makes it easy to find their vegan offerings. Search "vegan" in the search box and you'll find the blog entries for the animal-friendly line up for each season.


    Etnies' website is unclear about the materials used in the construction of their shoes.


    Emerica has always been good about telling consumers which shoes are fully synthetic. It used to be that the Ed Templeton models were the best bet, but now I don't see Templeton models from Emerica. Emerica's website made it really easy for me to see which models were fully synthetic - they have an article each season in the News section of their site that tells you which are and aren't. Instead of listing the shoes, I direct you to the articles:
    Holiday 2009:
    Fall 2009:
    And, for future reference, the search page:!
    Couldn't be easier. Thank you, Emerica!


    Fallen's website is unclear about the materials used in construction of their shoes. Jamie Thomas' pro models are suspected to be fully synthetic.


    The Shopatron side of Globe's website is sometimes good about listing the materials in each colorway when you click on the shoe description. They have some new materials terms: "Sandbuck", "Mesh", and "Barogue Leather".
    Suspected fully synthetic upper:
    • Pulse (Black/White, White/Green/Black)
    • Central (Black/True/Red, Black/Tan Safari, Black/Blue Punk, Black/White Split)
    • Superfly (Cobalt/Black)
    • Sabaton Mid (Black/Denim Cobalt)
    • Motley (Black Denim)
    • Sabre (White/Black/Red, Black/Charcoal, Black/Charcoal/Skull, White/Black, White/Black Skull, White/Grey, White/Grey/Skull)
    • Tilt (Black/Charcoal Mess, White/Black/Bold, White/Charcoal/Gridlock) 


    Gravis has an extremely annoying website, IMO, but they do appear to have some synthetic upper skate shoes.
    Good bets:
    • Dylan Mid (Agate Green, Black, Dark Coffee)
    • Dylan Mid LX MNS
    • Filter (Agate Green, Black, Chilli Pepper, Steel Grey Pinstripe)
    • Filter LX (Black Waxed, Blue Waxed, Picante Wax) 


    Habitat is a new addition to this list. There are four models that are confirmed vegan. They even use water-based glues. 
    Confirmed fully synthetic:
    • Ibex (Cement)
    • Lark Mid (Charcoal & Black)
    • Vireo Vulc (Cement)
    • Charter (Black & Olive)


    Ipath makes it easy to find their Vegan offerings. Just click on the link above. I've had Ipath shoes, and I really like the all-Hemp shoes. An older favorite was the Wharf Low - this was my favorite skate shoe of all time. The hemp fabric grabbed the grip tape on ollies and nollies and really kept the board stuck to my feet. The outsole, however, wore through in less than 2 weeks. Such a pity. Ipath shoes are solid performers, but the outsole is inferior. Because they wear down so fast, I only buy them when Journeys discounts them down to the $20-30 range.
    UPDATE: Ipath shoes are increasingly hard to find at discounted prices. The vulcanized sole, the one with the herringbone pattern, takes a session to get sticky to the board and wears down rapidly after that. The shoes never get overly sticky, though, just the right amount. Unfortunately, I wear through the vulc soles in about a week. Right now I'm skating the Vegan Mantis and am loving it. Two days down and I'm halfway through the sole on my front foot. I put a Superfeet DMP insole in them and they're the most comfortable skate shoes I've worn since the Wharf lows. They do not perform as well as the Wharf lows, however, but still are solid performing shoes. Journeys has the black hemp Grasshopper on sale for $39.99 right now, so I'm going to pick up a pair of those and see how the cupsole Ipaths perform. I would also like to get a pair of Vegan Crickets to see how those perform. All in all, I really like Ipath shoes a lot, and the company clearly supports Vegan lifestyles with high-quality shoes.


    The Manchester model is a sweet-looking shoe, and appears to be made of faux suede. Lakai just calls it "suede". I intend to go to the shoe store to check whether these are synthetic or not.
    Lakai also offers a recycled program model if that's your thing:
    Suspected fully synthetic uppers:
    • Manchester Select (Chocolate Canvas)
    • MJ2 Select (Burgundy Canvas)
    • Howard Select (Navy Canvas) 


    Macbeth is "openly vegan" with some of their offerings. Macbeth has twice won the Libby Award from PETA for "Best Vegan Skate Shoe". Macbeth has always been good about telling consumers which shoes are synthetic and which aren't. On their website, there is a link called Macbeth Vegan that lists all their vegan models. The majority of Macbeth shoes are vegan. At the shoe store and at most online retailers, it is usually pretty clear whether the shoe is vegan or not. The shoes have little tags or labels attached to them that say 100% Vegan, and online descriptions at shoe stores often espouse the vegan aspects of Macbeth shoes as selling points. From the website, it isn't wholly clear which colorways are vegan and which aren't, so take this list as a starting point and check at the store to make sure. All these shoes have removable insoles, so you can make any of them more comfortable with your custom insoles.
    Good bets:
    • Matthew
    • Schubert
    • Brighton
    • Wallister
    • Eliot
    • Manchester (in my opinion, this is the only truly skateable Macbeth shoe for technical street skating. There's light padding, a deep heel, and the laces protect the top of your foot.)
    • Women's Brighton
    • Nolan
    • Women's Eliot 


    Nike's manufacturing techniques have a low environmental impact. Nike now has a synthetic offering. (Thank you, ShakenVegetable!)

    Good bets:
    • SB Zoom FP

    Nike 6.0^12001^4294961576#?p=PWP&t=Men's Shoes&ll=en_US&ct=US

    See above.


    I don't know anything about Osiris shoes. They look supportive and have a lot of colorways. They have some interesting terms for the materials: "Nobel Nubuck", "Action Pebble Grain", "NDQ", "Danbuck"
    8/12/10 UPDATE: Osiris has a new website design that makes finding synthetic upper and vegan shoes a whole lot easier - just select your technology or material option from the drop down menu. Nice. Thanks, Osiris!
    Suspected fully synthetic uppers:
    • Pixel (Sil/Blk/Red, Blk/Pur/Bit, Blk/Red/Gld, Wht/Blk)
    • Chino Low (Black/White/Purple)
    • Chino Mid (Black/Grey/Blue)
    • Merk II (White/Champagne/Black)
    • Tron SE (Blk/Wht/Cyn)
    • Troma Redux (Blk/Wht)
    • Troma II (Black/White/West Coast, Black/Charcoal/Horror Show, 7 Deadly Sins/White, 7 Deadly Sins/Black, Todd Bratrud/Black, Black/White)
    • Serve (Black/White/Pinstripe)
    • NYC 83 SLM (Black/Con)
    • NYC 83 Mid (Pur/Blk/Elephant, Pagoda/Blk/Wht, Elephant/Black/White, Wht/Blue/Red, Silver/White/Black)
    • M3 (Blk/Blk/Gld, Wht/Blk/Gld)
    • Diablo (Brn/Gum/Satori, Blk/Wht/Blk, Blk/Wht/Red, Wht/LtGry) 


    Supra's website is unclear about the materials used in the construction of their shoes. I had a pair of EE Diablo 1.5 shoes that were all canvas; they lasted about 2 weeks until the sides were completely shredded. The shoes were still somewhat skateable, however, as the sole was barely worn through. However, the shredded canvas caused the upper to lose its support of my feet and I started getting foot injuries.


    Vans is another well-known maker of canvas upper shoes. Many of the shoes in their skate line incorporate animal pelts in their construction. Geoff Rowley's shoes used to be good bets, but now it seems that his line is using suede and leather. His Style 99 shoe, which he says he's been designing since 1999, when he was clearly a vegan, does not appear to have any synthetic offering at all. I will attempt to confirm whether the suede in the Style 99 is synthetic or not. A visit to the Vans store and inspection of the shoe confirms that the Rowley Style 99 shoe is indeed animal pelt suede, but who knows what they mean by "leather upper"? Because it doesn't look like animal pelt suede. Because Vans calls synthetic suede "synthetic suede", I'm assuming that "suede" in a Vans shoe is an animal pelt - only in-hand inspection of the shoe can confirm otherwise, it seems.
    8/12/10 UPDATE: Even handling Vans shoes, it is entirely unclear if the suede is animal pelt or synthetic. Nothing on the suede Vans shoe says "genuine leather", but the tongue does say "leather upper". Upon close examination, the suede material does not have the properties typical of animal pelt suede on other shoes (for instance, there are no variations in the material, there isn't a layered look to the material, when I scratch the material it doesn't get lighter like animal pelt suede). Not the most scientific test, I know. I bought a pair of Vans Holder shoes in green that I will subject to more extensive tests. Although, Vans could make it a lot easier on me if they just tell us what their suede is made of.
    The Old Skool model in Black/Black colorway used to be a good bet, too, but now the Vans website says that it contains suede, and it still is: on the website it now (as of 8/12/10) says the all black Old Skool shoes are "Vegan". I have a pair of Black/Black Old Skool from 2009 and they are all synthetic leather and canvas. My 106 shoes are nice for walking around in, but I won't skate them because one session of casper flips would completely destroy the thin canvas upper, not to mention the top of my foot.
    Vans also has a cool offering where you can design your own colorway:
    I gave the application a trial and found that you can really design anything you like for the Era, Slip-On, and Old Skool models. The color choices tell you when it is leather, suede, etc.
    Good bets:
    • Authentic
    • Era
    • 106
    • Slip-on (except Charcoal and Navy)
    • Rowley Stripes (Synthetic/Black/Black, Synthetic/Black/White) confirmed synthetic upper
    • DD-66 (Suit Stripes/Black, Suit Stripes/Light Gray) confirmed synthetic upper
    Suspected fully synthetic uppers:
    • TNT II Mid (Blue/Perforated)
    • AV Era 1.5 (Black/Gum)
    • Rowley [X] (Synthetic/Black/Red)
    • Estilo Quattro (Black Hemp) 

    Vox Footwear

    Vox's website is unclear about the materials used in the construction of their shoes.

    World Industries's-&-boy's

    World Industries' website is unclear about the materials used in the construction of their shoes.

    Zoo York

    Zoo York's website is unclear about the materials used in the construction of their shoes. Zoo York is now owned by Mark Ecko.


    1. Those information about skate shoes that is animal friendly is very good...i am greateful that you share that kind of information...keep it up...

    2. Hey dude, this is a really useful blog for me as I’m a mad Vans shoes fan who loves skateboarding more than anything else.Really informative source, So imagine my surprise at finding a blog that talk about them!

    3. Thanks for putting this together!

    4. Wow really good to know about your article. keep up the great job and the spirit. If you want to know more about the skateboarding then please go through Skate Shoes. thank you...

    5. Great information!

    6. I can't tell you how many times I have referred to this blog. YOU ROCK! Keep up the good work, and THANK YOU!

    7. One more thing: I looked into the Axion "Nino" model. Those are leather/animal hide according to, even the black ones that look like they might be synthetic. Axion's own online store also says they are leather.

    8. ShakenVegetable has left a new comment on your post "Animal-Friendly Skate Shoes":

      Great topic, keep up the good work on the reviews.

      One thing about "nubuck" type shoes...a lot of those are actually made of animal hide even though the material looks very similar to synthetic/textile based shoe materials. I believe a lot of the "nubuck" type material out there is just animal hide that has undergone some type of treatment process which gives it a synthetic "look". A lot of shoes from DVS, DC, and Globe seem to fall into this category.

      'Es actually does have some synthetic or vegan friendly shoes in their lineup. Problem is they vary a lot from season to season because they choose to make only certain colorways vegan-friendly or may discontinue a particular style entirely. If you search their site for "synthetic" or "vegan" you'll get some search results that say what shoes in a particular seasons' line are vegan friendly. Some of the older models that come up might still be available if you search around. For example, I just got a pair of "Saga" 'Es shoes as a birthday gift. The black ones are synthetic but I believe the white ones are real leather (animal hide). They seem like they will be a good shoe though. Amazon, Endless, and some other sites should still have them in stock.

      Re: Nike, FWIW, the newer Nike SB Zoom FP model is 100% synthetic.

    9. thanks for the info.seems like it's been harder and harder to find cruelty free shoes the last few years and most folks at the stores look at you like you asked them the square root of 5,256 when you ask them about vegan shoes

    10. Thanks, Anon 3/7/11 2:44 PM. I've found that even if you see a dude with dreads and rasta colors behind the counter it doesn't mean he'll know any better than anyone else about vegan shoes. The people at Journeys point to the MacBeth shoes and say, "I think all MacBeths are synthetic". (Not all MacBeth shoes are synthetic, they have a vegan offering for each of their models.)
      I'm starting actually to like Nike a little more now. I noticed that they have 2 Dunk models that are textile uppers and synthetic everything else. Nice.
      Habitat has some new models. I'm going to try to get a vegan cupsole pair and see how they are. As I get nearer to my 40th birthday I'm finding vulcanized shoes are causing too many foot injuries to justify the feel. Thank goodness shoe companies are coming out with low profile cupsoles!

    11. Protection is required in every game. Helmet, kneepads and gloves play an important role as a shield against injuries. Game like skateboarding needs an extra care and protection for feet.

    12. nubuck = leather canvas janoski's and bruin's

    13. Getting a good, solid pair of skate shoes is quite an investment for any skateboarding aficionado. And they look cool on you too as many skateboarding fans can guarantee.